The Seventh of the California Missions
November 1, 1776
The Jewel of the Missions
St. John of Capistrano, a 14th century theologian
Founding Father President:
Fr. Junípero Serra
Frs. Pablo Mugártegui and Gregorio Amurrío
Located within sight of the ocean in the town of San Juan Capistrano, which developed around the mission.
Three streams, the Trabuco, Horno and San Juan, converged at the mission.
This mission grew steadily, exceeding 1000 neophytes by 1797. Highest recorded population was 1,361, in 1812. Even in 1833, when the mission was secularized, 861 neophytes were still living at San Juan Capistrano.
In 1783 (the first year for which we have detailed records) the mission had 430 cattle, 305 sheep, 830 goats, 40 pigs, 32 horses and 1 mule, a total of 1,648 animals. In 1819 (the peak year) the mission had over 31,000 animals, including 14,00 cattle and 16,000 sheep.
Agricultural production was significant. Over the years 1783 - 1831 San Juan Capistrano harvested 234,879 bushels of wheat, barley, corn, beans, peas, lentils, garbanzos (chickpeas) and habas (broad beans).
In 1778, two years after the mission was moved to the present site, a small adobe chapel was built, and soon replaced by the Serra Chapel in 1782. This is the only remaining church in which Fr. Serra held mass. In order to accommodate the mission's growing population, the Great Stone Church was constructed between 1797 - 1806. This cathedral-like building was 180 feet long by 40 feet wide, and had a high-vaulted ceiling surmounted by seven domes fronted by a 120 foot tall bell tower. In December, 1812 a massive earthquake destroyed the Great Stone Church, killing 40 neophytes.
The four bells that hung in the Great Stone Church survived the earthquake, and were hung in a bell wall, one of the mission's most picturesque features. The two largest bells were cast in 1796, the others in 1804. Recently the two largest bells were recast, and the originals rehung in the ruins of the Great Stone Church.
The reredos and altar of Serra's Chapel are made of cherry wood and covered with gold leaf. They originated in Barcelona, Spain and are about three hundred years old. The altar is adorned with fifty-two angels faces, one for every Sunday of the year.
San Juan Capistrano, with its beautifully landscaped grounds and with the ruins of the Great Stone Church and adjacent bell wall, is one of the most picturesque sites in California.
Hippolyte de Bouchard, an Argentine privateer, attacked the mission in 1818.
Year Returned to Catholic Church:
1865 in a decree signed by Abraham Lincoln.
The Mission San Juan Capistrano Basilica (a large modern church) and the Serra Chapel are part of the Catholic Parish of San Juan Capistrano.
Indians Joining This Mission:
The Takic speaking people of the Acjachemen villages. Neophytes associated with San Juan Capistrano have been called Juaneño since the Spanish occupation.
Cliff Swallows (Las Golondrínas) return to mission from their wintering grounds 2000 miles away on or about each March 19 (St. Joseph's Day). The return of the swallows is celebrated in Leon Rene’s famous song "When the Swallows Come Back to Capistrano."
San Juan Capistrano was actually founded twice. Construction had begun in 1775 when news of the Indian attack on the San Diego mission forced the padres to stop construction and delay the founding until late 1776.
Richard Dana described the brisk trade in hides and tallow at the San Juan Capistrano in his coming-of-age book Two Years Before the Mast.