San Rafael Arcángel

San Rafael Arcángel
The Twentieth of the California Missions
 
Founded: December 14, 1817
Special Designation: Mission of Bodily Healing.
Named For: Saint Rafael, patron of good health and travelers.
Also Called: Originally a hospital asistencia. Raised to full mission status on October 19, 1822.
Founding Father President: Fr. Vincente de Sarría
Founding Missionaries: Fr. Luis Gil y Taboada
Prominent Missionary Leaders:
Indians Joining This Mission: Primarily Coast Miwok and Pomo
Mission Site: 15 miles north of San Francisco at the native site of 'Anaguani. Since San Rafael was intended to be a "hospital" asistencia, a key consideration was that the location be in a sunnier and more protected environment than San Francisco, which was foggy, damp and windy. The original mission buildings were razed in 1870. In 1919 the new St. Raphael Parish Church, with an imposing tower, was built on the site of the original chapel.
Layout: No effort was made to build a full complex. The initial building was a structure that measured 87 feet in length and 42 feet in width. It contained a hospital, chapel, padre's quarters and a storage area.
Water Source: There was ample water in the area finally selected, which had several springs and a stream.
Population: The peak mission population was 1,051, in 1826. By 1840 only 150 neophytes remained. Between 1817 and 1839 1,902 marriages were conducted at San Rafael.
Livestock: The herd was small by mission standards, but important for feeding the neophytes. In 1832 the mission had 2,120 cattle, 3,000 sheep, 370 horses ... and 2 hard-working mules.
Agricultural Output: In its short mission life (17 years) San Rafael had a relatively high agricultural output of approximately 97.000 bushels of grain and produce. Production centered on wheat although barley, corn and beans were also important with peas, lentils and chickpeas used in soups and stews. The mission had extensive vineyards and orchards, and was noted for the excellence of their pears.
Mission Church: In 1949 a replica of the original mission chapel was constructed on mission property to the right of the main church built in 1919. The replica has a Mudejar or star window said to have been copied from that at the Carmel Mission.
Mission Bells: Three of the original mission bells are now displayed in the mission museum. Replicas now hang from a wooden bell rack to the left of the chapel entrance. San Rafael never had a companario.
Mission Art: The interior of the chapel is contemporary in style. Saint Rafael Parish Church has a large bronze sculpture of San Rafael holding up a cross.
Special Attraction:
Significant Event(s): San Rafael was badly damaged in an Indian attack led by Chiefs Marin and Quintin in February, 1829. Loyal neophytes saved the life of the mission padre, Fr. Juan Amoros, by hiding him in the marshes.
Secularized: 1834
Year Returned to Catholic Church: 1855
Current Status: The mission Chapel is used for special events and is part of the parish of St. Rafael of the Roman Catholic Archiocese of San Francisco.
Responsibility:
Interesting Facts: 

Under the able leadership of Fr. Gil y Taboada, San Rafael becme California's first sanitarium.

.San Rafael maintained a substantial boat building operation, since boats were required to facilitate travel across the bay.

In 1846 John C. Fremont used the mission as his headquarters during the Mexican American War

After the mission ruins were removed in 1870, all that remained of the old mission site was a solitary pear tree. In 1909 the Native Sons of the Golden West erected a bell and sign on the original site.